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All text from Wikipedia and available under a CC-BY-SA license. Some translations produced with Google Translate.
A computer is a programmable machine that receives input, stores and manipulates data, and provides output in a useful format.
The Central Processing Unit (CPU) or the processor is the portion of a computer system that carries out the instructions of a computer program, and is the primary element carrying out the computer's functions.
Hard disk drive
A hard disk drive (often shortened as hard disk, hard drive, or HDD) is a non-volatile storage device that stores digitally encoded data on rapidly rotating rigid (i.e. hard) platters with magnetic surfaces.
In computing, a keyboard is an input device, partially modeled after the typewriter keyboard, which uses an arrangement of buttons or keys, to act as mechanical levers or electronic switches.
A monitor or display (sometimes called a visual display unit) is an electronic visual display for computers.
In computing, a mouse (plural mice, mouses, or mouse devices.) is a pointing device that functions by detecting two-dimensional motion relative to its supporting surface.
Operating system
In computing, an operating system (OS) is software (programs and data) that provides an interface between the hardware and other software.
Optical disc drive
In computing, an optical disc drive (ODD) is a disk drive that uses laser light or electromagnetic waves near the light spectrum as part of the process of reading or writing data to or from optical discs.
In computing, a printer is a peripheral which produces a hard copy (permanent readable text and/or graphics) of documents stored in electronic form, usually on physical print media such as paper or transparencies.
Random-access memory (usually known by its acronym, RAM) is a form of computer data storage. Today, it takes the form of integrated circuits that allow stored data to be accessed in any order (i.e., at random).
Computer software, or just software is a general term primarily used for digitally stored data such as computer programs and other kinds of information read and written by computers.